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直接話法と間接話法 | 時制 |平叙文 | 疑問詞を使った疑問文 | Yes/ No 疑問文 | 命令文 | 感嘆文 | 2種類の文

誰かが発言したり考えたりした内容を伝える方法を「話法」といい、そのまま伝える「直接話法」と、伝える人の視点で伝える「間接話法」があります。

 

直接話法」は 誰かの発言内容や考えたことを引用符( "   " )で囲む方法、「間接話法」は引用符を用いない方法です。今回は、この二つの話法についてお伝えします。

 

問題

次の2つの文が同じ意味になるように、空欄に適切な語を入れましょう。

 

 1.

  Mary said to me, "I am too busy to help you today."

  Mary (          ) me  (                                                ).

 

 2.

He said to Mary, "Where did you stay last night?"

He (          ) Mary (                                          ).

 

 

 3.

Tom said to me, "Who broke this window?"

Tom (         ) me (                                       ).

 

 

 4.

Tom said to me, "Will you go to the office by bus tomorrow?"

Tom (          ) me (                                       ).

 

 

 5.

  My father said to me, " Take your umbrella with you."

  My father (        )  me (                                   ).

 

 

 6.

  She said to me, "Please close the window."

間  She (          ) me (                                  ).

 

 

 7.

  My teacher said to me, " Don't be late for school tomorrow."

  My teacher (         ) me (                                                ).

 

 

 8.

  He said to me, " Let's play tennis today."

間  He (               ) to me (                                  ).

 

 

 9.

  I said, " How happy I am! "

  I (                               ).

 

 

10.

  She said, " I wish I knew his email address. "

  She said (                                        ).

 

 

11. 

  My teacher said to me, " What are you drawing? Please show it to me. "

  My teacher (            ) me (                                             ).

 

 

12.

  Mary said to me, " Tom invited me to go for a drive, but I do not want to. " 

  Mary (         ) me (                                   ). 

 

  

 

 

 解答と解説

 

直接話法から間接話法に言い換えるときに気をつけるべくポイントは、以下の4つです。

(1) 時制   

主節の時制に合わせます(これを「時制の一致」といいます)。

ただし、「時制の一致」の制約を受けないこともあります(時制の一致の例外)。

 

(2)動詞 

直接話法内容によって、以下のように間接話法動詞を使い分けます。

1.

say +平叙文(肯定文と否定文)

   ↔    say  that (S) (V) ~

間接話法の that は省略可能

 

 

2.

say to 人  +平叙文(肯定文と否定文) 

( 1.    10.  )

   ↔    間 tell 人 / answer 人report 人 などthat (S) (V) ~

間接話法の that は省略可能

 

 

3. 

say to 人疑問詞を使った疑問文

( 2.    11.  )

   ↔ ask 人 / inquire 人など + 疑問詞 (S) (V) ~

( 3. )

        疑問詞が主語の場合: ask 人疑問詞 (V) ~

 

注) 疑問詞の後の語順は平叙文と同じことに注意。

 

 

 

4. 

say to 人Yes/No 疑問文

 (  4.  )

   ↔ ask 人 / inquire 人などwhether/if  (S) (V) ~

 

 注) 接続詞(whether/if )の語順は平叙文と同じことに注意。 

 

 

 

5.

say (to 人 )命令文   

 ( 5.   6.    11.   )

   ↔   間 tell 人 / ask 人 / order 人 / advise 人など to + 動詞の原形

 

 

 

 6.

say (to 人 )否定の命令文   

 ( 7. )

   ↔   間 tell 人 / ask 人 / order 人 / advise 人 などnot to + 動詞の原形

 

 

7.

say (to 人)  + Let's ~ 

 (  8.  )

   ↔   suggest (to 人) / propose (to +人) など that  (S)  should  (V) ~

間接話法の that 節にshould を入れることが多い。

間接話法の that は省略可能

 

 

8. 

say (to 人)感嘆文 

 (  9.  )

   ↔     say (to 人) / tell 人 / remark / cry / exclaim / sigh などhow + 形容詞/副詞  (S) (V) ~

 

補足

驚きや悲しみなどの感情を、次のような副詞句を使って伝えることができます。

with delight(うれしそうに) / in anger(怒って) /  with regret(後悔して) / with relief(安心して)

 

 

(3) 代名詞

伝える人からみた人称や距離に変える。

 

 

(4) 時や場所を表す語句

伝える人の視点にあうように変える

例)

now  →  then

today  →  that day

tonight  →  that night

yesterday  →  the day before / the previous day

last night  →  the night before / the previous night

tomorrow  →  (the) next day / the following day

here  →  there

など

 

 

 

 1.

  Mary said to me, "I am too busy to help you today."

  Mary ( told ) me ( (that) she was too busy to help me that day ).

said to me →  told me

I → she

am(現在)  →  was(過去)

today → that day

 

 

 2.

He said to Mary, "Where did you stay last night?"

He ( asked  ) Mary (  where she had stayed the night before   ).

said to Mary →  asked Mary

you → she

did stay(過去) → had stayed(大過去)

last night → the night before / the previous night

 

 

 3.

Tom said to me, "Who broke this window?"

Tom (  asked  ) me (  who had broken that window  ).

said to me → asked me

broke(過去) →   had broken(大過去)

this  →  that

 

 

 

 4.

Tom said to me, "Will you go to the office by bus tomorrow?"

Tom (  asked  ) me (  if/whether  I would go to the office by bus the next day ).

said to me →  asked me

you  →  I

will  →  would

tomorrow  →  (the) next day / the following day

 

 

 5.

  My father said to me, " Take your umbrella with you."

  My father ( told  )  me ( to take my umbrella with me  ).

 said to me  →  told me

your   →   my

you  →  me

 

 

 6.

  She said to me, "Please close the window."

間  She (  asked   ) me (  to open the window  ).

 said to me  →   asked me

 

 

 7.

  My teacher said to me, " Don't be late for school tomorrow."

  My teacher ( told   ) me ( not to be late for school the next day ).

said to me  →  told me

tomorrow  →  (the) next day / the following day

 

 

 

 8.

  He said to me, " Let's play tennis today."

間  He (  suggested  ) to me (  (that) we ( should ) play tennis that day  ).

said to me  →  suggested to me

today  →  that day

 

 

 9.

  I said, " How happy I am! "

  I ( exclaimed how happy I was ).

said  →  exclaimed

am  →  was

 

 

 

10.

  She said, " I wish I knew his email address. "

  She said ( (that)  she wished she knew his email address.  ).

I  →  she

wish  →  wished

 

ここ大事!

I wish I knew ~は「~だったらなあ」という仮定法です。

仮定法は時制の一致を行いません(時制の一致の例外)

(~she wished she had known …ではありません)

 

 

11. 

  My teacher said to me, " What are you drawing? Please show it to me. "

  My teacher ( asked ) me (  what I was drawing and told me to show it to her ).

said to me  →  asked me ~ and  told me

me  →  her

 

ここ大事!

伝達内容が疑問文と命令文のように種類が違う場合は、それぞれ適切な動詞を使い and / but などの接続詞で繋ぎます。

 

 

 

12.

  Mary said to me, " Tom invited me to go for a drive, but I do not want to. " 

  Mary (  told  ) me ( (that) Tom had invited her to go for a drive but that she did not want to). 

me  →  her

invited(過去)  →  had invited(大過去)

I  →  she

do not  →  did not

 

ここ大事!

伝達内容がand / but / or などの等位接続詞でつながった文の場合、間接話法の動詞の直後の that は省略可能ですが、伝達内容であることを明確にするために、接続詞のあとのthat は省略できません

 

that がないと、伝達内容(彼女が言ったこと)ではなく、事実だということになります

Mary told me (that) Tom had invited her to go for a drive but she did not want to.

メアリーは私に~と言ったけど、彼女は行きたくなかったんです

 

 

直接話法と間接話法では主語や時制が異なりますので、間違えないように正しく使い分けましょう。

 

お読みいただき、ありがとうございました。

 

よろしければ、こちら↓も参考にしてください。

 

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